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Pharyngeal teeth lie on a modified, fifth gill arch which can be seen or probed behind the shoulder girdle, just inside the gill opening.The arch has to be removed with dissecting equipment to count the teeth.(2002) as relicts of older colonization waves and show an eastern influence consistent with an Asian origin of the family Cyprinidae.Cyprinion has no sister species in the Euro-Mediterranean area and has been isolated in the Middle East since before the salinity crisis, 7.8-8.8 MY ago.The Middle East leuciscine cyprinids have Europe as an important Palearctic influence consistent with the Lago Mare dispersion while the the cyprinine cyprinids show three highly divergent lineages, namely one shared with the Euro-Mediterranean area (Barbus/Luciobarbus), a relict of the Lago Mare dispersion, one shared with Africa (Carasobarbus/Varicorhinus subgenus) and one with Asia (Garra).The Lago Mare dispersion occurred during a salinity crisis in the Mediterranean Sea 5.5 MY ago in the Late Miocene when freshwater fish were able to disperse through oligohaline or fresh water in the Paratethys Sea to reach the Middle East (Bianco, 1990). (2002) conflict with this scenario - the Carasobarbus clade that includes Barbus (= Tor) grypus shows a separation divergence later than the salinity crisis in the Pliocene when no migration route was available.Tooth counts are presented as a formula such as 2,5-4,1 which indicates 2 teeth in the outer left row and 4 on the inner right row.

The carp or minnow family is one of the most widespread and speciose families of fishes in the world, certainly the most speciose in fresh water and possibly the largest family of vertebrates (the Gobiidae may be the first).

Chen and Mayden (2009) investigated the major clades of cyprinids using a multiple nuclear gene approach and tentatively recommended elevation of certain subfamilies to family.

This is not in general use at this writing and the Cyprinidae is retained as a single family here. (2002) using cytochrome b DNA of Cyprinidae conclude that the the Middle East is an important interchange area for this freshwater ichthyofauna rather than a centre of speciation.

Cyprinion may have entered the Middle East during the colonization event that isolated the genera Barbus sensu lato and Schizothorax in the European and Asian basins respectively.

The divergence of these species is similar in time to the radiation of the Leuciscinae supposedly centred in Siberia based on fossil records. (sic) from the Lower Miocene of Saudi Arabia showing an early date for the entry of cyprinids to the Afro-Arabian Plate.